SINAPSIS

Neurocinématique et le cerveau cinéphile

Neurocinematics and the cinephile brain

 

SINAPSIS, Episode 6 - Neurocinematics and the cinephile brain

From the prehistoric paintings of the Chauvet cave, being able to reproduce moving images is one of the oldest human obsessions. Towards the end of the 19th century, the invention of the cinema, where moving images, new narrative forms and cinematographic special effects unite to deceive our senses, forever changed the possibilities of expression of humanity.

 

Why do films fascinate us so much? How can the stories projected on a screen absorb us to the point of making us forget the outside world? Cinema stimulates many elements at the same time: sight and hearing, but also our brain action observation network, and systems for social interactions and empathy. Some argue that this simultaneous stimulation produces the most complete simulation of conscious experience in our brain. Neurocinematics - a branch of cognitive neuroscience, the product of the fusion of psychology, neurobiology and film studies - uses neuroimaging techniques to elucidate what goes on in our brains when we watch a movie.

 

For the French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard, any editing is a lie. We who love to watch films are therefore fanatics of lies; we place ourselves in the hands of the directors so that they can lull our eyes and ears with illusions and conduct, for a few hours, the orchestra of our nervous system. In this episode of SINAPSIS, Fernanda Pérez-Gay will explore the results of pioneering studies of neurocinematics and the special effects with which filmmakers direct the activity of our brains. Through the episode, she will also talk about the influence of the social experience of cinema on our emotions and we will have the chance to listen to the perspective of Dr. Rafael Salín Pascual, psychiatrist and researcher who will explore how the cinema is inspired by neuroscience subjects. Are you ready? Lights, camera, action!

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In México, SINAPSIS, Conexiones entre el art y tu cerebro, has been possible thanks to the generous support of the Secretaria de Cultura del Gobierno de México and their Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes FONCA.
 

In Canada, SINAPSIS, Connections between art and your brain / Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau, is possible thanks to the support of the Centre de recherche en éthique - CRÉ, the support and generous economical contribution of the Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQ & FRQSC), the ACT Programa Arte, Ciencia, y Tecnologías, and The Convergence Initiative.

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SINAPSIS, Reference Episode 6

Neurocinematics

  1. Konigsberg, Ira. (2007). Film Theory and the New Science. Projections: The Journal for Movies and Mind 1 (1): 1–24

  2. Hasson U, Nir Y, Levy I, Fuhrmann G, Malach R. Intersubject synchronization of cortical activity during natural vision. Science. 2004 Mar 12;303(5664):1634-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1089506. PMID: 15016991.

  3. Hasson, U., Furman, O., Clark, D., Dudai, Y., & Davachi, L. (2008). Enhanced intersubject correlations during movie viewing correlate with successful episodic encoding. Neuron, 57(3), 452–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2007.12.009

  4. Hasson U., Landsman O., Knappmeyer B., Vallines I., Rubin N., Heeger D. J. (2008b). Neurocinematics: the neuroscience of film. Projections 2, 1–26

  5. Baldassano, C., Hasson, U., & Norman, K. A. (2018). Representation of Real-World Event Schemas during Narrative Perception. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 38(45), 9689–9699. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0251-18.2018


Emotions and cinema as a social experience

  1. Kaltwasser, L., Rost, N., Ardizzi, M., Calbi, M., Settembrino, L., Fingerhut, J., Pauen, M., & Gallese, V. (2019). Sharing the filmic experience - The physiology of socio-emotional processes in the cinema. PloS one, 14(10), e0223259. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223259

  2. Fernández, C., Pascual, J. C., Soler, J., Elices, M., Portella, M. J., & Fernández-Abascal, E. (2012). Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback, 37(2), 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-012-9180-7

  3. Tikka, P., Väljamäe, A., de Borst, A. W., Pugliese, R., Ravaja, N., Kaipainen, M., & Takala, T. (2012). Enactive cinema paves way for understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 6, 298. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00298

  4. Dunbar, R. I. M., Teasdale, B., Thompson, J., Budelmann, F., Duncan, S., van Emde Boas, E., & Maguire, L. (2016). Emotional arousal when watching drama increases pain threshold and social bonding. Royal Society Open Science, 3(9), 160-288. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160288

  5. Hanich, J., Wagner, V., Shah, M., Jacobsen, T., & Menninghaus, W. (2014). Why we like to watch sad films. The pleasure of being moved in aesthetic experiences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8(2), 130-143. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035690

Neuroscience as an inspiration of cinema

  1. Salín-Pascual, R (2014). La cineterapia: El cine como complemento del tratamiento del enfermo psiquiátrico. Ed. CreativeSpace https://www.amazon.es/gp/product/B00IEF0QQQ/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_tkin_p1_i3

  2. Salin-Pascual R. Psiquiatricón. 1ª Ed. México DF: Libros para Todos; 2008.

  3. Salín-Pascual, R (2014). La creatividad cinematográfica y la representación veraz de la enfermedad psiquiátrica. Revista de la Asociación Psiquiátrica Mexicana. 28-29 pp.

  4. Van Meerbeke, A. (Ed.). (2019). Neurociencia y cine. Bogotá D. C.: Editorial Universidad del Rosario. doi:10.2307/j.ctvpbnp0r

  5. Galifret Y. Visual persistence and cinema? Comptes Rendus Biologies. 2006;329:369-385


Other interesting books

  1. Gallese, V. & Guerra, M (2019). The empathetic screen: Cinema and Neuroscience. Ed.  Oxford University Press.

  2. Anderson, J. (1988). The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film-. Ed, Southern Illinois University Press.

  3. Shimamura, A. (2013) Psychocinematics: Exploring Cognition at the Movies. Ed. Oxford University Press.

 

SINAPSIS, Épisode 6 - Neurocinématique et le cerveau cinéphile

Depuis les peintures rupestres de la grotte de Chauvet, reproduire l'image en mouvement est une des plus vieilles obsessions humaines. Vers la fin du XIXème siècle, l’invention du cinéma, où les images en mouvement, des nouvelles formes narratives et des trucages cinématographiques s'unissent pour tromper nos sens, a ainsi changé pour toujours les possibilités d'expression de l'humanité. 

Pourquoi les films nous fascinent-ils autant ? Comment les histoires projetées sur un écran peuvent-elles nous absorber au point de nous faire oublier le monde extérieur? Le cinéma stimule de nombreux éléments en même temps: la vue et l'ouie, mais aussi nos systèmes cérébraux de l'observation du mouvement, des interactions sociales et de l'empathie. Certains avancent que cette stimulation simultanée produit dans notre cerveau la simulation de l'expérience consciente la plus complète.  La neurocinématique – branche des neurosciences cognitives, produit de la fusion de la psychologie, la neurobiologie et les études cinématographiques – utilise les techniques de neuroimagerie pour élucider ce qui se passe dans notre cerveau lorsque nous regardons un film.

Pour le cinéaste français Jean-Luc Godard, tout montage est un mensonge. Nous qui aimons voir des films sommes donc des fanatiques du mensonge; nous nous plaçons entre les mains des réalisateurs afin qu'ils bercent d'illusions nos yeux et nos oreilles et dirigent, pendant quelques heures, l'orchestre de notre système nerveux. Dans cette épisode de SINAPSIS, Fernanda Pérez-Gay explorera les résultats des études pionnières de la neurocinématique et les trucages avec les quelles les cinéastes dirigent l’activité des nos cerveaux. À travers l’épisode, elle nous parlera aussi de l’influence de l'expérience sociale du cinéma sur nos émotions et on aura la chance d’écouter la perspective du Dr. Rafael Salín Pascual, psychiatre et chercheur qui explorera la façon dont le cinéma s’inspire des témathiques des neurosciences. Êtes vous prêts? Lumière, moteur, action!

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Au Mexique, SINAPSIS, Conexiones entre el art y tu cerebro, a été possible grâce au généreux soutien du Secretaria de Cultura del Gobierno de México et de leur Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes FONCA.


Au Canada, SINAPSIS, Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau / Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau, est possible grâce au soutien du Centre de recherche en éthique - CRÉ, au soutien et à la généreuse contribution économique du Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQ & FRQSC), l'ACT Programa Arte, Ciencia, y Tecnologías, et L'Initiative Convergence.

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Pinture.png
Music.png
Danse.png
Literature.png

SINAPSIS, Référence pour l'épisode 6

Neurocinématique

  1. Konigsberg, Ira. (2007). Film Theory and the New Science. Projections: The Journal for Movies and Mind 1 (1): 1–24

  2. Hasson U, Nir Y, Levy I, Fuhrmann G, Malach R. Intersubject synchronization of cortical activity during natural vision. Science. 2004 Mar 12;303(5664):1634-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1089506. PMID: 15016991.

  3. Hasson, U., Furman, O., Clark, D., Dudai, Y., & Davachi, L. (2008). Enhanced intersubject correlations during movie viewing correlate with successful episodic encoding. Neuron, 57(3), 452–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2007.12.009

  4. Hasson U., Landsman O., Knappmeyer B., Vallines I., Rubin N., Heeger D. J. (2008b). Neurocinematics: the neuroscience of film. Projections 2, 1–26

  5. Baldassano, C., Hasson, U., & Norman, K. A. (2018). Representation of Real-World Event Schemas during Narrative Perception. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 38(45), 9689–9699. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0251-18.2018


Émotions et l’expérience sociale du cinéma

  1. Kaltwasser, L., Rost, N., Ardizzi, M., Calbi, M., Settembrino, L., Fingerhut, J., Pauen, M., & Gallese, V. (2019). Sharing the filmic experience - The physiology of socio-emotional processes in the cinema. PloS one, 14(10), e0223259. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223259

  2. Fernández, C., Pascual, J. C., Soler, J., Elices, M., Portella, M. J., & Fernández-Abascal, E. (2012). Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback, 37(2), 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-012-9180-7

  3. Tikka, P., Väljamäe, A., de Borst, A. W., Pugliese, R., Ravaja, N., Kaipainen, M., & Takala, T. (2012). Enactive cinema paves way for understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 6, 298. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00298

  4. Dunbar, R. I. M., Teasdale, B., Thompson, J., Budelmann, F., Duncan, S., van Emde Boas, E., & Maguire, L. (2016). Emotional arousal when watching drama increases pain threshold and social bonding. Royal Society Open Science, 3(9), 160-288. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160288

  5. Hanich, J., Wagner, V., Shah, M., Jacobsen, T., & Menninghaus, W. (2014). Why we like to watch sad films. The pleasure of being moved in aesthetic experiences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8(2), 130-143. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035690

Cinéma et neurosciences

  1. Salín-Pascual, R (2014). La cineterapia: El cine como complemento del tratamiento del enfermo psiquiátrico. Ed. CreativeSpace https://www.amazon.es/gp/product/B00IEF0QQQ/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_tkin_p1_i3

  2. Salin-Pascual R. Psiquiatricón. 1ª Ed. México DF: Libros para Todos; 2008.

  3. Salín-Pascual, R (2014). La creatividad cinematográfica y la representación veraz de la enfermedad psiquiátrica. Revista de la Asociación Psiquiátrica Mexicana. 28-29 pp.

  4. Van Meerbeke, A. (Ed.). (2019). Neurociencia y cine. Bogotá D. C.: Editorial Universidad del Rosario. doi:10.2307/j.ctvpbnp0r

  5. Galifret Y. Visual persistence and cinema? Comptes Rendus Biologies. 2006;329:369-385


D’autres livres intéressants sur le sujet

  1. Gallese, V. & Guerra, M (2019). The empathetic screen: Cinema and Neuroscience. Ed.  Oxford University Press.

  2. Anderson, J. (1988). The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film-. Ed, Southern Illinois University Press.

  3. Shimamura, A. (2013) Psychocinematics: Exploring Cognition at the Movies. Ed. Oxford University Press.

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