SINAPSIS

Créativité dans le cerveau

Creativity in the brain

 

SINAPSIS, Episode 1 - Creativity in the Brain

Where does creativity reside in the brain? Is it possible to localize it? Is it limited to a particular brain region?

The study of creativity is a daunting task. To begin with, we can think of creativity in different ways: as an individual trait (some subjects are more creative than others), as an occasional state (which everyone experiences in their life at some point) or in terms of a “creative product” (based on the novelty and originality of an original work of art or a mathematical theorem). In any case, we can agree that creativity involves the generation of something new, transforming or transcending the existent. With the advent of brain imaging, which allows researchers to measure changes in brain activity in real-time, neuroscience has taken a new step in the scientific study of creativity. It is therefore natural to ask: is there a particular brain state or configuration that favours the emergence of new ideas or solutions?

Neuroscientific approaches to creativity have evolved a lot over the past century. From the first studies in clinical settings - on patients with brain injuries - to the most recent studies of the creative brain, this video-capsule will share some of the key moments of the long journey that psychologists, psychiatrists, neurologists and neuroscientists have undertaken to study the neural bases of creativity. Along the way, we'll review the basic anatomy of the brain; we will debunk one of the most common myths about the brain (the idea that the right hemisphere is creative and artistic, while the left hemisphere is logical and analytical); we will ask a neuropsychiatrist about the relationship between creativity and mental illness and we will dive into the different experimental approaches that neuroscientists use today to study the creative phenomenon.

Let the journey begin! (Don’t forget to activate the subtitles in your preferred language)

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In México, SINAPSIS, Conexiones entre el art y tu cerebro, has been possible thanks to the generous support of the Secretaria de Cultura del Gobierno de México and their Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes FONCA.
 

In Canada, SINAPSIS, Connections between art and your brain / Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau, is possible thanks to the support of the Centre de recherche en éthique - CRÉ, the support and generous economical contribution of the Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQ & FRQSC), the ACT Programa Arte, Ciencia, y Tecnologías, and The Convergence Initiative.

 

SINAPSIS, Reference Episode 1

Neural networks and creativity

  1. Beaty, R. E., Kenett, Y. N., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Benedek, M., Chen, Q., Fink, A., Qiu, J., Kwapil, T. R., Kane, M. J., & Silvia, P. J. (2018). Robust prediction of individual creative ability from brain functional connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(5), 1087–1092. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1713532115

  2. Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Silvia, P. J., & Schacter, D. L. (2016). Creative Cognition and Brain Network Dynamics. Trends in cognitive sciences, 20(2), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.10.004

  3. Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Wilkins, R. W., Jauk, E., Fink, A., Silvia, P. J., Hodges, D. A., Koschutnig, K., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Creativity and the default network: A functional connectivity analysis of the creative brain at rest. Neuropsychologia, 64, 92–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.019

  4. Boot, N., Baas, M., van Gaal, S., Cools, R., & De Dreu, C. (2017). Creative cognition and dopaminergic modulation of fronto-striatal networks: Integrative review and research agenda. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 78, 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.007

Other studies on the neurobiology of creativity

  1. Kenett, Y. N., Betzel, R. F., & Beaty, R. E. (2020). Community structure of the creative brain at rest. NeuroImage, 210, 116578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116578

  2. DeYoung, C. G., & Grazioplene, R. G. (2018). Birth of a field: Neuroscience of creativity. Applied neuropsychology. Adult, 1–3. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2018.1426095

  3. Chávez-Eakle, R. A., Graff-Guerrero, A., García-Reyna, J. C., Vaugier, V., & Cruz-Fuentes, C. (2007). Cerebral blood flow associated with creative performance: a comparative study. NeuroImage, 38(3), 519–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.07.059

  4. Chavez R. A. (2016). Imagery As a Core Process in the Creativity of Successful and Awarded Artists and Scientists and Its Neurobiological Correlates. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 351. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00351

 

Unconscious processes, divergent thinking and creativity

  1. Dijksterhuis, A., & Meurs, T. (2006). Where creativity resides: The generative power of unconscious thought. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 15(1), 135-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2005.04.007

  2. Runco, M & Acar, S. (2012)  Divergent Thinking as an Indicator of Creative Potential,Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 66-75, https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.652929

 

Can creativity be measured?

  1. Piffer, D. (2012). Can creativity be measured? An attempt to clarify the notion of creativity and general directions for future research, Thinking Skills and Creativity. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871187112000326

  2. Abraham A. (2013). The promises and perils of the neuroscience of creativity. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 246. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00246

 

Puzzle-solving and the AHA! phenomenon

  1. Kounios, J., & Beeman, M. (2014). The cognitive neuroscience of insight. Annual review of psychology, 65, 71–93. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115154

  2. Jung-Beeman, M., Bowden, E. M., Haberman, J., Frymiare, J. L., Arambel-Liu, S., Greenblatt, R., Reber, P. J., & Kounios, J. (2004). Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLoS biology, 2(4), E97. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020097

The myth of the creative right hemisphere


https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/smg/Website/braincourse/brainlearning/unit1_sec2.html
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-it-true-that-creativit/

Books on the neuroscience of creativity

  1. Andreasen, N. C. (2005). The creating brain: The neuroscience of genius. Dana Press.

  2. Boden, M. A., Gabora, L., Ranjan, A., Stahlman, W. D., Leising, K. J., Garlick, D., ... & de Moor, M. H. M. (2013). Neuroscience of creativity. Mit Press.

  3. Kandel, E. R. (2012). The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, mind, and brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present. Random House Incorporated.Nancy Andreasen “The creating brain”, editorial Dana Press.

  4. Fox, K. C., & Christoff, K. (Eds.). (2018). The Oxford handbook of spontaneous thought: Mind-wandering, creativity, and dreaming. Oxford University Press.

  5. Smolucha, F., & Gardner, H. (1984). Art, Mind, and Brain: A Cognitive Approach to Creativity.

 

SINAPSIS, Épisode 1 - Créativité et cerveaux

Où se trouve la créativité dans le cerveau? Est-il possible de la localiser? Se limite-t-elle vraiment à un hémisphère ou à une zone en particulier?

Étudier la créativité est une tâche ardue. Pour commencer, on peut voir la créativité de bien des façons: comme un trait individuel (quelques sujets sont plus créatifs que d’autres), comme un état occasionnel (que tout le monde expérimente dans sa vie à un certain moment) ou bien à partir de son produit (selon, par exemple, l’originalité ou nouveauté de l’œuvre d’art ou le théorème mathématique qui a été créé ou conçu). Dans tous les cas, on peut s’entendre sur la définition de la créativité comme un processus permettant de générer quelque chose de nouveau, en transformant ou en transcendant ce qui existe déjà. Avec l'arrivée de l'imagerie cérébrale. Qui permet aux chercheurs de mesurer en temps réel les changements physiques dans l'activité du cerveau, les neurosciences ont franchi une nouvelle étape dans l’étude scientifique de la créativité. Il est alors naturel de se demander : quel est l’état ou la configuration cérébrale qui favorise l'émergence de nouvelles idées ou de solutions?

Les approches neuroscientifiques sur la créativité ont beaucoup évolué au cours du siècle dernier. En partant des études en milieu clinique, -sur des patients souffrant de lésions cérébrales- pour arriver jusqu’aux plus récents études du cerveau créatif, cette vidéo-capsule nous partagera quelques moments clés du long voyage que les psychologues, psychiatres, neurologues et neuroscientifiques ont fait pour étudier les bases cérébrales de la créativité.  Dans le chemin, on va réviser l’anatomie base du cerveau; on va détruire un des mythes les plus répandus à propos du cerveau (l'idée que l'hémisphère droit est créatif et artistique, alors que l'hémisphère gauche est logique et analytique); on va demander à un neuropsychiatre de nous parler sur la relation entre créativité et maladie mentale et on va plonger dans les différentes approches que les neuroscientifiques utilisent aujourd’hui pour étudier le phénomène créatif de façon expérimentale.

Que le voyage commence! (N’oubliez pas d’activer les sous-titres dans le langage de votre préférence)

___________________________

Au Mexique, SINAPSIS, Conexiones entre el art y tu cerebro, a été possible grâce au généreux soutien du Secretaria de Cultura del Gobierno de México et de leur Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes FONCA.


Au Canada, SINAPSIS, Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau / Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau, est possible grâce au soutien du Centre de recherche en éthique - CRÉ, au soutien et à la généreuse contribution économique du Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQ & FRQSC), l'ACT Programa Arte, Ciencia, y Tecnologías, et L'Initiative Convergence.

 

SINAPSIS, Référence pour l'épisode 1

Réseaux cérébrales et créativité

  1. Beaty, R. E., Kenett, Y. N., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Benedek, M., Chen, Q., Fink, A., Qiu, J., Kwapil, T. R., Kane, M. J., & Silvia, P. J. (2018). Robust prediction of individual creative ability from brain functional connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(5), 1087–1092. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1713532115

  2. Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Silvia, P. J., & Schacter, D. L. (2016). Creative Cognition and Brain Network Dynamics. Trends in cognitive sciences, 20(2), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.10.004

  3. Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Wilkins, R. W., Jauk, E., Fink, A., Silvia, P. J., Hodges, D. A., Koschutnig, K., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Creativity and the default network: A functional connectivity analysis of the creative brain at rest. Neuropsychologia, 64, 92–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.019

  4. Boot, N., Baas, M., van Gaal, S., Cools, R., & De Dreu, C. (2017). Creative cognition and dopaminergic modulation of fronto-striatal networks: Integrative review and research agenda. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 78, 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.007

D’autres études sur la neurobiologie de la créativité

  1. Kenett, Y. N., Betzel, R. F., & Beaty, R. E. (2020). Community structure of the creative brain at rest. NeuroImage, 210, 116578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116578

  2. DeYoung, C. G., & Grazioplene, R. G. (2018). Birth of a field: Neuroscience of creativity. Applied neuropsychology. Adult, 1–3. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2018.1426095

  3. Chávez-Eakle, R. A., Graff-Guerrero, A., García-Reyna, J. C., Vaugier, V., & Cruz-Fuentes, C. (2007). Cerebral blood flow associated with creative performance: a comparative study. NeuroImage, 38(3), 519–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.07.059

  4. Chavez R. A. (2016). Imagery As a Core Process in the Creativity of Successful and Awarded Artists and Scientists and Its Neurobiological Correlates. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 351. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00351

 

Processus inconscients, pensée divergente et créativité

  1. Dijksterhuis, A., & Meurs, T. (2006). Where creativity resides: The generative power of unconscious thought. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 15(1), 135-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2005.04.007

  2. Runco, M & Acar, S. (2012)  Divergent Thinking as an Indicator of Creative Potential,Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 66-75, https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.652929

 

Peut-on mésurer la créativité?

  1. Piffer, D. (2012). Can creativity be measured? An attempt to clarify the notion of creativity and general directions for future research, Thinking Skills and Creativity. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871187112000326

  2. Abraham A. (2013). The promises and perils of the neuroscience of creativity. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 246. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00246

 

Résolution d’énigmes et le phénomène EUREKA!

  1. Kounios, J., & Beeman, M. (2014). The cognitive neuroscience of insight. Annual review of psychology, 65, 71–93. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115154

  2. Jung-Beeman, M., Bowden, E. M., Haberman, J., Frymiare, J. L., Arambel-Liu, S., Greenblatt, R., Reber, P. J., & Kounios, J. (2004). Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLoS biology, 2(4), E97. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020097

Le mythe de la créativité et l’hemisphère droit


https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/smg/Website/braincourse/brainlearning/unit1_sec2.html
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-it-true-that-creativit/

Livres sur la neuroscience de la créativité

  1. Andreasen, N. C. (2005). The creating brain: The neuroscience of genius. Dana Press.

  2. Boden, M. A., Gabora, L., Ranjan, A., Stahlman, W. D., Leising, K. J., Garlick, D., ... & de Moor, M. H. M. (2013). Neuroscience of creativity. Mit Press.

  3. Kandel, E. R. (2012). The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, mind, and brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present. Random House Incorporated.Nancy Andreasen “The creating brain”, editorial Dana Press.

  4. Fox, K. C., & Christoff, K. (Eds.). (2018). The Oxford handbook of spontaneous thought: Mind-wandering, creativity, and dreaming. Oxford University Press.

  5. Smolucha, F., & Gardner, H. (1984). Art, Mind, and Brain: A Cognitive Approach to Creativity.

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