SINAPSIS

Peinture et perception visuelle

Painting & Visual perception

 

SINAPSIS, Episode 2 - Painting​ & Visual Perception

What happens in our brain when we are in front of a painting that fascinates us? How do we perceive the basic elements of a painting? How do these elements arrive at our brain centers of memory and emotions, to make us experience moments of pleasure or evoke unsuspected memories?

 

The field of Neuroaesthetics uses neuroscientific techniques to characterize the cognitive and affective processes and the neurobiological foundations of artistic experiences -perception, production and response to art. In this field, the visual modality has been widely studied. When we visit a museum, we immerse ourselves in works that exhibit all the characteristics studied by vision neuroscientists: shape, colour, depth, movement. Thus, we can learn a great deal about different aspects of brain functioning through these works of art. This is undoubtedly why visual art intrigues and fascinates neuroscientists so much. For example, Semir Zeki, one of the founders of neuroaesthetics, suggests that artists are in some sense neurologists, studying the brain with techniques that are unique to them”, and Margaret Livingstone, another neurobiologist interested in the perception of art postulates that: “Each aspect of our vision is illustrated with examples of painters who have mastered the means of fooling it ".

 

Compared to other animals, such as bats, whose perception of the world depends on the hearing system, or dogs, whose smell powerful enough to recognize places and people, humans are above all visual beings. In this context, this second episode of SINAPSIS will introduce you to the subject of neuroaesthetics, showcase the work of a Mexican neurobiologist studying the perception of 1,100-year-old pre-hispanic murals and offer you a brief journey along the human visual pathway!

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In México, SINAPSIS, Conexiones entre el art y tu cerebro, has been possible thanks to the generous support of the Secretaria de Cultura del Gobierno de México and their Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes FONCA.
 

In Canada, SINAPSIS, Connections between art and your brain / Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau, is possible thanks to the support of the Centre de recherche en éthique - CRÉ, the support and generous economical contribution of the Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQ & FRQSC), the ACT Programa Arte, Ciencia, y Tecnologías, and The Convergence Initiative.

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SINAPSIS, Reference Episode 2

On Neuroaesthetics

 

  1. Zeki, S. (1998). Art and the Brain. Daedalus, 127(2), 71-103. Retrieved November 30, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20027491

  2. Chatterjee A, Vartanian O. Neuroaesthetics. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Jul;18(7):370-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.03.003. Epub 2014 Apr 23. PMID: 24768244.

  3. Chatterjee, Anjan. (2014). The aesthetic brain : how we evolved to desire beauty and enjoy art. New York, NY ; Oxford :Oxford University Press.

  4. Zeki, S. (1999). Inner vision: An exploration of art and the brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Brain response to visual art, from the eye to the limbic system

 

  1. Boccia M, Barbetti S, Piccardi L, Guariglia C, Ferlazzo F, Giannini AM, Zaidel DW. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Jan;60:65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.09.009. Epub 2015 Nov 24. PMID: 26619805.

  2. Catani, M., Dell’Acquaa, F., Thiebaut de Schotenna, M. (2013). A revised limbic system model for memory, emotion and behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 1724–1737.

  3. Jacobs RH, Renken R, Cornelissen FW. Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031248. Epub 2012 Feb 22. PMID: 22384006; PMCID: PMC3285156.

  4. Jacobs, R. H., & Cornelissen, F. W. (2017). An Explanation for the Role of the Amygdala in Aesthetic Judgments. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 11, 80. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00080

  5. Kandel, E. R. (2012). The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, mind, and brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present. Random House. Part three: Biology of the beholder’s perception to art.

  6. Livingstone, M. (2002). Vision and art: The biology of seeing. New York, N.Y: Harry N. Abrams. “ Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing”.

Art and eye-tracking

 

  1. Massaro, D., Savazzi, F., Di Dio, C., Freedberg, D., Gallese, V., Gilli, G., & Marchetti, A. (2012). When art moves the eyes: a behavioral and eye-tracking study. PloS one, 7(5), e37285. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037285

  2. Rosenberg, R., & Klein, C. (2015). The moving eye of the beholder: Eye tracking and the perception of paintings. In J. P. Huston, M. Nadal, F. Mora, L. F. Agnati, & C. J. Cela-Conde (Eds.), Art, aesthetics and the brain (p. 79–108). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670000.003.0005

  3. Savazzi, F., Massaro, D., Di Dio, C., Gallese, V., Gilli, G., & Marchetti, A. (2014). Exploring responses to art in adolescence: a behavioral and eye-tracking study. PloS one, 9(7), e102888.

  4. Walker, et. Al. (2017) “Looking at paintings in the Vincent Van Gogh Museum: Eye movement patterns of children and adults”. PlosONE. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178912

 

 

About top-down processes

 

  1. Frith, C. (2007). Making up the mind: How the brain creates our mental world. Blackwell Publishing.

  2. Gilbert, C.D & Li, W. (2013) “Top down influences on visual processing”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14, 350-363. http://www.nature.com/articles/nrn3476

  3. Gilbert. C.D, & Sigman, M. (2007) Brain States: Top-Down influences in sensory processing. Neuron 54 (5), 677-696. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627307003765

  4. Kandel, E. R. (2012). The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, mind, and brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present. Random House. Chapter 18: Top-down processing of information: Using memory to find meaning.​

 

SINAPSIS, Épisode 2 - Peinture ​et perception visuelle

Qu’est-ce qui se passe dans notre cerveau devant un tableau qui nous fascine? Comment percevons-nous les éléments de base d'une peinture? Comment ces éléments arrivent-ils dans nos centres cérébraux de la mémoire et des émotions, pour nous faire vivre des moments de plaisir ou évoquer des souvenirs insoupçonnés?

 

La neuroesthétique, est une discipline qui utilise les techniques des neurosciences pour expliquer les processus cognitifs et affectifs ainsi que les bases biologiques de la perception, la production et la réponse à l’art. Dans ce domaine, la modalité visuelle est une des plus étudiées.  Lorsque nous visitons un musée, nous nous plongeons dans des œuvres qui présentent toutes les caractéristiques étudiées par les neuroscientifiques de la vision : forme, couleur, profondeur, mouvement. Ainsi, nous pouvons apprendre à travers elles différents aspects du fonctionnement cérébral; c'est sans doute pour cela que l'art visuel intrigue et fascine autant les neuroscientifiques. Par exemple, Semir Zeki, un des fondateurs de la neuroesthétique, suggère que « en tout artiste habite également un neurologue, qui étudie le système nerveux avec des méthodes uniques et personnelles » et Margaret Livingstone, une autre neurobiologiste intéressée à la perception de l’art postule que « chaque aspect de notre système visuel pourrait être illustré par des exemples de peintres ayant réussi à le tromper ».

 

Par rapport à d'autres animaux, comme les chauves-souris, dont la perception du monde dépend du système de l'ouïe, ou les chiens, dont l'odorat est si puissant qu'il leur suffit pour reconnaître des lieux et des personnes, les humains sont avant tout des êtres visuels. Dans ce contexte, l’épisode 2 de SINAPSIS vous introduit au sujet de la neuroesthétique, vous partage le travail d’un neurobiologiste mexicain qui étudie l et vous offre un petit voyage le long de la voie visuelle!

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Au Mexique, SINAPSIS, Conexiones entre el art y tu cerebro, a été possible grâce au généreux soutien du Secretaria de Cultura del Gobierno de México et de leur Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes FONCA.


Au Canada, SINAPSIS, Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau / Connexions entre l'art et votre cerveau, est possible grâce au soutien du Centre de recherche en éthique - CRÉ, au soutien et à la généreuse contribution économique du Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQ & FRQSC), l'ACT Programa Arte, Ciencia, y Tecnologías, et L'Initiative Convergence.

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Pinture.png
Music.png
Danse.png
Literature.png
Cine.png

SINAPSIS, Référence pour l'épisode 1

Sur la Neuroesthétique

 

  1. Zeki, S. (1998). Art and the Brain. Daedalus, 127(2), 71-103. Retrieved November 30, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20027491

  2. Chatterjee A, Vartanian O. Neuroaesthetics. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Jul;18(7):370-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.03.003. Epub 2014 Apr 23. PMID: 24768244.

  3. Chatterjee, Anjan. (2014). The aesthetic brain : how we evolved to desire beauty and enjoy art. New York, NY ; Oxford :Oxford University Press.

  4. Zeki, S. (1999). Inner vision: An exploration of art and the brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Réponses du cerveau à l’art visuelle, de l’oeil au système lymbique

  1. Boccia M, Barbetti S, Piccardi L, Guariglia C, Ferlazzo F, Giannini AM, Zaidel DW. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Jan;60:65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.09.009. Epub 2015 Nov 24. PMID: 26619805.

  2. Catani, M., Dell’Acquaa, F., Thiebaut de Schotenna, M. (2013). A revised limbic system model for memory, emotion and behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 1724–1737.

  3. Jacobs RH, Renken R, Cornelissen FW. Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031248. Epub 2012 Feb 22. PMID: 22384006; PMCID: PMC3285156.

  4. Jacobs, R. H., & Cornelissen, F. W. (2017). An Explanation for the Role of the Amygdala in Aesthetic Judgments. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 11, 80. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00080

  5. Kandel, E. R. (2012). The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, mind, and brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present. Random House. Part three: Biology of the beholder’s perception to art.

  6. Livingstone, M. (2002). Vision and art: The biology of seeing. New York, N.Y: Harry N. Abrams. “ Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing”.

Art et “eye-tracking” (suivi oculaire)

 

  1. Massaro, D., Savazzi, F., Di Dio, C., Freedberg, D., Gallese, V., Gilli, G., & Marchetti, A. (2012). When art moves the eyes: a behavioral and eye-tracking study. PloS one, 7(5), e37285. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037285

  2. Rosenberg, R., & Klein, C. (2015). The moving eye of the beholder: Eye tracking and the perception of paintings. In J. P. Huston, M. Nadal, F. Mora, L. F. Agnati, & C. J. Cela-Conde (Eds.), Art, aesthetics and the brain (p. 79–108). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670000.003.0005

  3. Savazzi, F., Massaro, D., Di Dio, C., Gallese, V., Gilli, G., & Marchetti, A. (2014). Exploring responses to art in adolescence: a behavioral and eye-tracking study. PloS one, 9(7), e102888.

  4. Walker, et. Al. (2017) “Looking at paintings in the Vincent Van Gogh Museum: Eye movement patterns of children and adults”. PlosONE. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178912
     

 

Sur les processus top-down

 

  1. Frith, C. (2007). Making up the mind: How the brain creates our mental world. Blackwell Publishing.

  2. Gilbert, C.D & Li, W. (2013) “Top down influences on visual processing”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14, 350-363. http://www.nature.com/articles/nrn3476

  3. Gilbert. C.D, & Sigman, M. (2007) Brain States: Top-Down influences in sensory processing. Neuron 54 (5), 677-696. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627307003765

  4. Kandel, E. R. (2012). The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, mind, and brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present. Random House. Chapter 18: Top-down processing of information: Using memory to find meaning.

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